The endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous arachidonoyl-containing lipid mediators with important roles in host defense. Macrophages are first-line defenders of the innate immune system and biosynthesize large amounts of eCBs when activated. The cellular levels of eCBs are controlled by the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes and catabolic enzymes, which include members of the serine hydrolase (SH) superfamily. The physiologic activity of SHs can be assessed in a class-specific way using chemoproteomic activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) methods. Here, we have examined avian (chicken) HD11 macrophages, a widely used cell line in host-pathogen research, using gel-based ABPP and ABPP-multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) to profile the changes in SH activities under baseline, chemical-inhibitor-treated, and pathogen-challenged conditions. We identified α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the principal SHs responsible for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) hydrolysis, thereby regulating the concentration of this lipid in HD11 cells. We further discovered that infection of HD11 macrophages by Salmonella Typhimurium caused the activities of these 2AG hydrolases to be downregulated in the host cells. ABHD6 and FAAH were potently inhibited by a variety of small-molecule inhibitors in intact live cells, and thus these compounds might be useful host-directed adjuvants to combat antimicrobial resistance in agriculture. 2AG was further shown to augment the phagocytic function of HD11 macrophages, which suggests that pathogen-induced downregulation of enzymes controlling 2AG hydrolytic activity might be a physiological mechanism to increase 2AG levels, thus enhancing phagocytosis. Together these results define ABHD6 and FAAH as 2AG hydrolases in avian macrophages that can be inactivated pharmacologically and decreased in activity during Salmonella Typhimurium infection.
Activity-based protein profiling; Host defense; Macrophage; Salmonella Typhimurium; Serine hydrolases
- PMID: 29196970
- DOI: 10.1007/s11010-017-3237-0