Canna~Fangled Abstracts

Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre bundle formation and structure.

By May 27, 2015 No Comments
2015 May 27. pii: plv061. [Epub ahead of print]


PM 1aPlant fibres -cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material – are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth, by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. 0.5 mm more basal, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimeters of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (<10%) give rise directly or via their derivatives to secondary phloem fibres. The key determinant of final bundle structure, both for primary and secondary phloem fibres, is intrusive growth. Through bi-directional elongation, fibres join other fibres initiated individually in other stem levels, thus forming the bundles. Our results provide the specific developmental basis for further biochemical and molecular-genetic studies of phloem fibre development in hemp, but may be applied to many other species.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.


Cannabis sativa ; Cambium; hemp; intrusive growth; phloem fibre bundles; plant fibres





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