Background: Bothrops moojeni snake venom (VBm) has toxins that cause pronounced tissue damage and exacerbated inflammatory reaction. Cannabis sativa L. is a plant species that produces an oil (CSO) rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Nano-emulsions have several advantages, such as better stability and higher penetrating power in membranes. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of a nano-emulsion based on this herbal derivative (NCS) against VBm-induced inflammation in Wistar rats.
Methods: The CSO and NCS were submitted to physicochemical characterization. The inflammatory process was induced by the VBm (0.10 mg/kg) as follows: rat paw edema, peritonitis, analysis of leukocyte infiltrate in gastrocnemius muscle of rats and formation of granulomatous tissue.
Results: No significant changes were observed when the NCS was submitted to the centrifugation and thermal stress tests. There was no phase separation, changes in density (0.978 ± 0.01 g/cm3) and viscosity (0.889 ± 0.15). The droplet diameter ranged from 119.7 ± 065 to 129.3 ± 0.15 nm and the polydispersity index ranged from 0.22 ± 0.008 to 0.23 ± 0.011. The results showed that treatments with CSO (200 and 400 mg/kg) and NCS (100 mg/kg) were able to decrease significantly (p < 0.001) the formation of edema and granulomatous tissue. The CSO and NCS groups significantly attenuated (p < 0.001) the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the tests for peritonitis and leukocyte infiltrate. The histopathological analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle showed a reduction in tissue damage caused by VBm.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed anti-inflammatory activity of the CSO which may be due to a high UFA content. The nanosizing, as evidenced by the incorporation of the CSO in the NCS improved the effect and opens the perspective for the obtainment of a nanomedicine in which a kinetic stable phytotherapic can be used at low doses.
Keywords: Bothrops moojeni, Cannabis sativa, Fixed oil, Histopathology, Myonecrosis, Nanoemulsion