The present study examined whether crosstalk between cannabinoid (CB) and transient potential receptor vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) could contribute to the survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). MPTP induced a significant loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and glial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (STR) as visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry, respectively. RT-PCR analysis shows the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in microglia in the SN in vivo, indicating the activation of the inflammatory system. By contrast, treatment with capsaicin (a specific TRPV1 agonist) increased the survival of dopamine neurons in the SN and their fibers and dopamine levels in the STR in MPTP mice. Capsaicin neuroprotection is accompanied by inhibiting MPTP-induced glial activation and production of inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with AM251 and AM630 (CB1/2 antagonists) abolished capsaicin-induced beneficial effects, indicating the existence of a functional crosstalk between CB and TRPV1. Moreover, treatment with anandamide (an endogenous agonist for both CB and TRVP1) rescued nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and reduced gliosis-derived neuroinflammatory responses in MPTP mice. These results suggest that the cannabinoid and vanilloid system may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, that are associated with neuroinflammation.
Copyright © 2020 Rayul Wi et al.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.