Cannabidiol (CBD) is a bioactive terpenophenolic compound isolated from Cannabis sativa L. It is known to possess several properties of pharmaceutical interest, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, neuroprotective and anti-convulsant, being it active as a multi-target compound. From a therapeutic point of view, CBD is most commonly used for seizure disorder in children. CBD is present in both medical and fiber-type C. sativa plants, but, unlike Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), it is a non-psychoactive compound. Non-psychoactive or fiber-type C. sativa (also known as hemp) differs from the medical one, since it contains only low levels of THC and high levels of CBD and related non-psychoactive cannabinoids. In addition to medical Cannabis, which is used for many different therapeutic purposes, a great expansion of the market of hemp plant material and related products has been observed in recent years, due to its usage in many fields, including food, cosmetics and electronic cigarettes liquids (commonly known as e-liquids). In this view, this work is focused on recent advances on sample preparation strategies and analytical methods for the chemical analysis of CBD and related compounds in both C. sativa plant material, its derived products and biological samples. Since sample preparation is considered to be a crucial step in the development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of natural compounds in complex matrices, different extraction methods are discussed. As regards the analysis of CBD and related compounds, the application of both separation and non-separation methods is discussed in detail. The advantages, disadvantages and applicability of the different methodologies currently available are evaluated. The scientific interest in the development of portable devices for the reliable analysis of CBD in vegetable and biological samples is also highlighted.
Keywords: Analysis, Biological fluids, Cannabinoids, Cannabis sativa L., Extraction, Hemp
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Conflict of interest statement
Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.