Introduction: Pain is a common symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD), impairing quality of life. The clinical appearance and the underlying etiologies are diverse. Different subtypes of pain may occur, with musculoskeletal pain considered to be the most frequent. Often there is also a combination of different causes of pain. There is a lack of controlled studies addressing pain therapy in PD.
Areas covered: In this review the authors analyzed the currently available data, taking into account the available publications in the databases, especially PubMed. The authors further provided their expert perspectives on the challenges of treating pain in PD patients.
Expert opinion: There is both nociceptive and neuropathic pain and in patients with PD, some PD-related pain and some unrelated. Diagnosis requires a thorough and differentiated history and examination, and targeted diagnostics. Therapeutically, many drugs are used, but the data is unfortunately limited and not specific. Medications used include Parkinson-related, mainly dopaminergic drugs, as well as opioids and non-opioid analgetics, anticonvulsives, antidepressants, and more recently cannabinoids. Currently, therapy is performed nonspecifically, without taking into account the special requirements of PD. Unfortunately, in many cases, pain is resistant to these therapies. In the future, both diagnostic and therapeutic efforts should be made to address this issue.
KEYWORDS: Parkinson’s disease, analgetics, opioids, pain, pain therapy
- PMID: 31290336
- DOI: 10.1080/14656566.2019.1639672